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Governance Themes Information Database Organisation Database Training and Events
Governance Themes Information Database Organisation Database Training and Events

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Governance Themes Information Database Organisation Database Training and Events
Governance Themes Information Database Organisation Database Training and Events

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Governance Themes Information Database Organisation Database Training and Events
Governance Themes Information Database Organisation Database Training and Events

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Governance Themes Information Database Organisation Database Training and Events
Governance Themes Information Database Organisation Database Training and Events

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Case studies

This page forms part of the Governance Theme section on 'conflict', providing examples of case studies of conflicts in Africa, Asia, Europe and South America.

Page contents

Bosnia

Colombia

Sri Lanka

Sudan
Rwanda/Uganda
Angola/Mozambique
Cambodia

Fiji

Somalia, Somaliland and Horn of Africa

Liberia/Sierra Leone

Nigeria
Afghanistan

Key texts: Bosnia

Bose, S. 1995 'State crises and nationalities conflict in Sri Lanka and Yugoslavia, Comparative Political Studies, vol. 28, no. 1, pp 87-116.
A paper by Sumantra Bose of Columbia University explores the causes of state disintegration and nationalities conflict experienced in Sri Lanka and Yugoslavia since World War II. In both countries, the state is argued to have played a divisive rather than conciliatory role in ethnic relations.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Bougarel, X (1996) 'Bosnia and Hercegovina - State and Communitarianism' in Dyker and Vejroda (Eds), 1996, 'Yugoslavia and After' Addison Wesley Longman Publishing, London.
This article, a chapter from the book 'Yugoslavia and After' analyses the recent crisis in Bosnia by examining the role of communitarianism. It follows Bosnia from the early centuries of the Ottoman period to the peace processes of 1995, examining communitarian identities, behaviour and crises.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Chandler, D. 1999, The limits of peacebuilding: international regulation and civil society development in Bosnia, International Peacekeeping, vol. 6, no. 1, pp109-125.
This article from International Peacekeeping argues against the external intervention of international peacekeeping missions. It looks at the case of Bosnia to investigate how top-down international regulation and bottom-up civil society building may have conflicting, rather than complementary, impacts. It argues that long-term interventions can obstruct a self-governing democracy, instead institutionalising divisions and providing unaccountable solutions.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Key texts: Colombia

Moser, C. 1999, Violence in Colombia: Building Sustainable Peace and Social Capital, A World Bank Country Study.
A World Bank study of violence in Colombia tries to assess the countrys fundamental problem of violence by evaluating its causes and costs, and past and recent interventions to address the problem. Although there have been many interventions to address violence in Colombia, the study concluded that many were piecemeal, uncoordinated, and lacked national direction.
Full document available online

Key texts: Sri Lanka

Armon, J. and Philipson, L. (eds.) 1998, 'Demanding sacrifice: war and negotiation in Sri Lanka,' Accord Issue 4, Conciliation Resources, London.
A study, embarked upon under the auspices of Conciliation Resources, chronicles the cycles of conflict and dialogue in post-colonial Sri Lanka. Focusing on the endemic resistance activities of militant Tamil nationalism (the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam - 'LTTE') and the governments reciprocal policy of 'war for peace', the papers stimulate reflection on some key lessons to be drawn from the conflict experience in the region and highlights the failure of previous policies and approaches at achieving peace.
Full document available online

Goodhand, J. et al, 2000 'Social capital and the political economy of violence: a case study of Sri Lanka', Disasters, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 390-406
Through an examination of the inter-relations between the political economy generated by violent conflict and social capital and case study analysis of several war-affected communities in Sri Lanka, this article explores the links between violent conflict, political economy and social capital. The authors question the notion of social capital as 'a good thing', and posit the concept that the critical factor is the interaction between social, economic and political processes.
Full document available online

Bose, S. 1995 'State crises and nationalities conflict in Sri Lanka and Yugoslavia, Comparative Political Studies, vol. 28, no. 1, pp 87-116.
This paper explores the causes of state disintegration and nationalities conflict experienced in Sri Lanka and Yugoslavia since World War II. In both countries, the state is argued to have played a divisive rather than conciliatory role in ethnic relations.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Key texts: Sudan

Ali, T.M. and Matthews, R.O. (eds) 1999, 'Civil war and failed peace efforts in Sudan' in Civil Wars in Africa: Roots and Resolution, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
This paper examines the background to, and different views on, the war in Sudan and discusses the obstacles to and prospects for peace.
Full document available online

Key texts: Rwanda / Uganda

Mamdani, M. 1996, 'From conquest to consent as the basis of state formation: reflections on Rwanda,' New Left Review no. 216, pp 3-36.
This article studies the background of and options for the Rwandan genocide of 1994. It looks at the roots of the hostilities between the Bahutu and Batutsi and how relations shifted from one of Batutsi domination to their massacre at the hands of the Bahutu.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for " BLDS Document Delivery Service."

Jones, B.D. 1999 'Civil war, the peace process and genocide in Rwanda', in Ali and Mattews (eds.), Civil Wars in Africa.
The purpose of this chapter, in Civil Wars in Africa: Roots and Resolution, is to reconstruct elements of the third-party process, so as to place the Rwanda genocide in the context of the regional and international efforts to halt the civil war. Root causes of the civil war are considered, as is the accompanying peace process.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for " BLDS Document Delivery Service."

Reno, W. 2001, 'The politics of war and debt relief in Uganda', Journal of Conflict Security and Development, vol. 1, no. 2.
Multilateral creditors who provide debt relief to Uganda face an increasing dilemma. Keen for the country to be seen as a successful case of debt relief, they continue to support President Yoweri Museveni's regime. Uganda is currently engaged in war with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Therefore, how do creditors answer critics who suggest they are indirectly subsidising this war? How can they cope with Ugandan officials who exploit their anxieties?
Full document available online

Key texts: Angola/Mozambique

Armon, J. et al (eds.) 1998, 'The Mozambican peace process in perspective,' Accord Issue 3, Conciliation Resources, London.
An issue of 'Accord: An International Review of Peace Initiatives' brings together various articles recounting the history of Mozambique's anti-colonial and civil wars and the subsequent 1992 peace settlement.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for " BLDS Document Delivery Service."

Saul, J.S. 1999, 'Inside from the outside? The roots and resolution of Mozambique's un/civil war' in Ali and Matthews (eds.), Civil Wars in Africa.
This chapter, in Civil Wars in Africa: Roots and Resolution, outlines the roots of the Mozambican conflict by considering the relative importance of internal and external factors. This analysis leads to a consideration of how these parallel forces shaped the recent resolution of armed conflict, tracing the negotiations that lead to multi-party democratic elections. In each stage of this peace process, it is demonstrated that both internal and external actors played prominent roles.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for " BLDS Document Delivery Service."

Key texts: Cambodia

Hendrickson, D. 1998 'Safeguarding peace: Cambodia's constitutional challenge,' Accord: An International Review of Peace Initiatives, Issue no. 5.
An issue of 'Accord: An International Review of Peace Initiatives' compiles various articles reviewing Cambodia's transition towards democracy after three decades of war and social upheaval. Following a brief look at Cambodia's history, the authors focus primarily on the peace process since the 1991 Paris Agreements, with particular regard to the 1993 and 1998 elections.
Full document available online

Hendrickson, H. 2001, 'Globalisation, insecurity and post-war reconstruction: Cambodia's precarious transition', IDS Bulletin, vol. 32 no. 2, 2001, p98-106.
Taking Cambodia as an example, this articles argues that imposing rapid marketisation on a weak political and legal framework can increase socio-economic insecurity among vulnerable groups. Post-war reconstruction focusing on macro-economic stability exacerbated political tensions, while donors' desire to down-size the civil service conflicted with one of the key stabilising features of the first post-war coalition - the integration of members of the two incoming parties into the administration and security apparatus.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service."

Hendrickson, D. 2001, 'Cambodia's security-sector reforms: limits of a down-sizing strategy,' Conflict Security Development, vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 67-82.
The IMFs loan assistance to Cambodia is conditional on economic liberalisation and stabilisation programmes, including a reduction in public spending. Military expenditure was judged excessive and thus a key security sector reform was downsizing. Demobilisation reforms were through the Cambodia Veterans Assistance Programme (CVAP), re-established by the World Bank in 1999 after political obstacles hindered its implementation in 1994. However, a paper from the Conflict, Security and Development Group argues lessons were not learnt from previous, failed, reform efforts.
Full document available online

Huxley, T. 2001, 'Reforming Southeast Asia's security sector,' Working Paper no. 4, The Conflict, Security and Development Group, Centre for Defence Studies 2001.
This paper examines security sector issues in relation to Southeast Asia, a region which has been relatively neglected in the literature. All of its security sectors changed in important ways during the 1990s but the outcome of these developments has not been uniform, due to the divergent patterns of civil/ military relations across the countries of the region.
Full document available online

Key texts: Fiji

Prasad, S. 1996, Limits and Possibilities for Civil Society Led Re-democratization: The Fijian Constitutional Debates and Dilemma.
A paper by Satendra Prasad, Lecturer at the University of the South Pacific, Fiji, examines the experience of Fiji where race based politics ultimately led to a military coup in 1987, bringing the countrys democratic system and economy to its knees. It explains how such a deep racial separation formed between the indigenous population and the Indo-fijians who were brought to the country between 1870 and 1920 under colonial rule. It also reviews the impact of the Citizens Consultation Forum (CCF) that was established after the coup to bring about reform.
Full document available online

Key texts: Somalia, Somaliland and Horn of Africa

Cliffe, L. 1999, 'Regional dimensions of conflict in the Horn of Africa,' Third World Quarterly vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 89-111.
This paper analyses the nature of conflict within the Horn of Africa. The Horn of Africa in this paper includes Ethiopia, Somalia, Djibouti, Sudan, Eritrea and also the countries in the regional economic group, the Inter-Government Authority on Development (IGAD). It examines the regional institutional network, IGAD, that aims to resolve these conflicts.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Ahmed, I. and Green, R.H. 1999, 'The heritage of war and state collapse in Somalia and Somaliland,' Third World Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 1, pp 113-127.
The basic foundation for any attempt for rehabilitation or reconstruction rests on the complete understanding and appreciation of local conditions. Somalia and Somaliland show contrasting pictures of how the decentralised and indigenous system works better than the imposed centralised system.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Adam, H.M. 1999. 'Somali civil wars', in Civil Wars in Africa, eds. Ali, T. M. and Matthews, R.O., McGill-Queen's University Press, London, pp. 169-192.
A paper published in the book, Civil Wars in Africa, gives a historical insight into the internal conflict configurations in Somalia and provides an understanding of the current condition of the state. Since the military dictatorship of president Siyad came to an end in 1991, power struggles and inter-clan clashes affected many parts of Somalia. If Siyads regime of state terror was the basis for civil wars, personal political ambition and differences between clan leaders were responsible for a delayed restoration of order. Despite the political chaos and economic instability, there are positive developments, such as the growth of civil society, which may help the emergence of state structures in Somalia.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Key texts: Liberia/Sierra Leone

Armon, J. and Carl, A. 1996, 'The Liberian peace process,' Accord: An International Review of Peace Initiatives, vol. 1, no. 1., Conciliation Resources, London.
Conciliation Resources' journal, Accord, charts the progress of conflict resolution in Liberia. Hostilities began in 1989 when the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) attempted to oust Liberia's then dictator, President Doe. The retaliation and resultant war were brutal, with numerous massacres of civilians - often along ethnic lines, as the army and rebel movement each comprised rival ethnic groups.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Outram, Q. 1999 'Liberia: roots and fruits of the emergency,' Third World Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 1, pp 163 - 173.
This paper discusses the origins and the political legacy of the 1990-1997 complex political emergency (CPE) in Liberia, a country which unlike most African states has never been a formal colony.
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Zack-Williams, A.B. 1999, 'Sierra Leone: the political economy of civil war, 1991 - 1998.' Third World Quarterly, vol. 20, no.1, pp143 - 162.
This report analyses Sierra Leone's political and economic history since independence to find out what lessons can be learnt. Violence and corruption became institutional under the All People's Congress, which governed for 23 years. This led to a break down of civil society and democratic accountability.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Alao, A. 1999, 'Diamonds are forever...but so also are controversies: diamonds and the actors in Sierra Leone's civil war,' Civil Wars, vol.2, no.3.
The influence of diamonds on the civil war in Sierra Leone until the reinstation of incumbent President Kabbah in February 1998 is explored in this paper. For many years successive governments have been accused of mismanaging proceeds from Sierra Leone's resources, and by the early 1990s the country was one of the poorest in the world. The resulting fiscal and economic policies only increased anti-government sentiments. This discontent, combined with other sub-regional developments, led to the formation of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) which launched an anti-government rebellion in March 1991.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Ero, C. 2000, 'Sierra Leone's security complex', Working Paper no. 3, Centre for Defence Studies, London.
This working paper from the Conflict and Development Group, Kings College London, focuses on the role that international support in security sector reform could play in the future of Sierra Leone. The paper covers the countrys history and civil war, including the causes of the war, the challenges to the process of building post-war security, and an index of lessons learned from other post-war countries.
Full document available online

Key texts: Nigeria

Abiodun, A. 2000, 'Security Reform in Democratic Nigeria', The Conflict, Security and Development Group Working Paper, Centre for Defence Studies, Kings College, University of London.
The issue of security-sector management since Nigeria's independence has been tied to the politics of governance and to the activities of civil society. It encompasses both military and human security and involves questions of development and conflict management. A paper from the Centre for Defence Studies, University of London, focuses on the military side of the equation, examining the issue in the development of Nigeria's security-sector reform.
Full document available online

Key texts: Afghanistan

Wimmer, A. and Schetter, C. 2002, 'State - formation first: recommendations for reconstruction and peace-making in Afghanistan', ZEF discussion paper on development policy no. 45.
This discussion paper recommends revisions of the programme for reconstruction and peace-making in Afghanistan, as defined at conferences in Bonn and Tokyo. The programme needs to take a more long-term perspective; have a clearer strategic vision and be better adapted to Afghanistans situation. It must be designed to overcome political fractures through state-building rather than through civil society, the current focus of development policies. Recent Security Council decisions are moving in the right direction, opting for aid to be coordinated through the transitional government and suitable local authorities rather than a special UN organisation.
Full document available online

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