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Non state provision

DFID's policy to guarantee the equitable and universal provision of effective basic services includes a focus on non state provision. The following series of key texts, which form part of the Governance Theme section on 'service delivery', explores the issues of public-private-NGO/CBO partnerships, and the capacity to manage service delivery, contracting and partnerships.

Page contents

Public-private-NGO/CBO partnership

Capacity to manage service delivery, contracting, partnership

General
Private sector
NGOs
Civic organisations

General
Contracting
Management
Benchmarking

Key texts: Public-private-NGO/CBO partnership

General

Olowu, D. 1999, 'Public service delivery,' Chapter 8 in Adamolekun, L. (ed) Public Administration in Africa. Main Issues and Selected Country Studies, Westview, Oxford.
This paper examines the various strategies being adopted by African countries to improve the delivery of services to their citizens. It considers the critical importance of service delivery for the organisation of the public services; the alternative institutional arrangements for delivering services, and the role of decentralised organs, NGOs, and communities.
Full document available through: the BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Savas, E.S. 2000, 'Basic characteristics of goods and services,' in Privatization and Public Private Partnerships, Chatham House Publishers, London & New York.
This chapter, in Privatisation and Public Private Partnerships, outlines the different types of goods and services across two axes: the ability to exclude individuals, and the mode of consumption. The common terms private goods and public goods are avoided as their meaning is weighted, instead referring to individual (consumption individual/exclusion feasible), toll (joint consumption/ exclusion feasible) common-pool (individual consumption/exclusion infeasible), and collective goods (joint consumption/exclusion infeasible) as the pure types.
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Pinto, R.F. 1998, 'Innovations in the provision of public goods and services', Public Administration and Development, vol. 18, p.387-397.
Pinto (World Bank) draws on the varied experience of developed (UK) and transitional (Eastern European) countries to identify general guidelines and strategies for optimising service provision. The state, the market and the public all have roles to play, which are specific to a country's situation. The critical determinants in policy formulation are not ideological inclinations (minimalist or 'strong state' approaches) but the nature of the service/good being provided and the level of 'maturity' of the public and private sectors.
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Savas, E.S. 2000, 'Alternative arrangements for providing goods and services' in Privatization and Public Private Partnerships, Chatham House Publishers, London & New York.
Provision of goods and services is at the heart of the public agenda. Collective action to supply goods and services requires making decisions about the service to be provided, the level of service and how to pay for it. Collective action is commonly assumed to mean government action. However, it can be entirely voluntary without formal involvement of government.
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World Bank 1993, World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
This World Development Report examines the interplay between human health, health policy and economic development. The report takes a global perspective, distinguishing between high, medium and low-income countries. The recommendations made in the report contribute to the goal of attainment for all people of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life (1978 Alma-Ata conference).
Full document available online

Harris, J. 2000, 'Working together: the principles and practice of co-operation and partnership' in R. Dorcas et al. (eds) Managing Development - Understanding Inter-Organizational Relationships, pp.225-242, Sage Publications, London.
The patterns of how people are organised fall broadly into three fields: competition, where people are organised through impersonal market forces; co- ordination, where hierarchical control shapes transactions, and; co-operation. This chapter of Managing Development: Understanding Inter-Organisational Relationships considers how this third way of organising relies on a control mechanism other than price or authority to be effective.
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Private sector

Lieberman, I.W., Desai, R.M. and Nestor, S. 1997, Between States and Markets: Mass Privatization in Transition Economies. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Through the coming together of some of the key policy strategists on privatisation in Eastern Europe and the CIS, this publication provides both a comparative, historical record of processes of mass privatisation since 1991 as well as a resource for decisionmakers of countries contemplating such reforms. It shows that the experience of mass privatisation in former socialist nations, as brief as it is, has much to tell the world about the institutions of capitalism, the establishment and enforcement of property rights, reforming the public sector, and the states role in these affairs.
Full document available online

Foldvary, F. 1994, Public Goods and Private Communities: The Market Provision of Social Services, Edward Elgar, Aldershot.
Many economists as well as much of the public think that only the government or public sector can provide the collective services that people in a community may desire. This book argues that this proposition is incorrect in that the market-failure model does not reflect the nature of real society. Once real- world factors are introduced into public-goods theory, the market-failure argument not only falls, but is turned upside down.
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Aljunid, S. 1995, 'The role of private medical practitioners and their interactions with public health services in Asian countries,' Health Policy and Planning, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 333-49.
This Health Policy and Planning Journal article provides a literature review of papers that consider the role of the private sector across a large number of developing countries, from India, to Mexico, to Papua New Guinea, but focussing mainly on the East Asian region. The significance of private health care in Asian countries, factors influencing utilisation of health services, and the interaction between public and private providers across countries are included.
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World Bank 2001, 'Private Sector Development Strategy: Issues and Options,' consultation / discussion paper, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
This World Bank discussion paper looks at a number of issues surrounding the role of Private Sector Development (PSD) in developing countries. Realistically, the only way to achieve basic services for the poor in developing countries is through the private sector.
Full document available online

Roth, G. 1987, The Private Provision of Public Services in Developing Countries, Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford.
Gabriel Roth examines some of the services that are generally considered the responsibility of government - whether central, regional or local. The purpose of this study is to give examples from developing countries of the private provisioning of those services. The book is not primarily concerned with whether a public agency ought to charge for it services and, if so, whether the charges ought to recover the full costs of services provided. The intent of the author is not to tell policymakers or researchers what should be done, but to provide examples of what is being done already.
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NGOs

Semboja, J. and Therkildsen, O. (eds) 1996, Service Provision Under Stress in East Africa: The State, NGOs and People's Organizations in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, Heinemann, Portsmouth.
A collection of articles by different authors, this book considers the roles of the state, NGOs, peoples organisations (POs), member service organisations (MSOs) and donors in East African service delivery. Focusing on Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania individually and in comparison, authors primarily look at education, health, and law and order services.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Jack, W. 2001, 'Public policy toward non-governmental organizations in developing countries,' World Bank Working Paper no. 2639, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
In many developing countries non-governmental organisations (NGOs) participate in the delivery of what are essentially private goods in particular, health- care and education. In an economy without NGOs, there may be good redistributive and efficiency reasons for the government to provide these goods in kind. But if direct government provision of such services is ineffective or inefficient, when is contracting out to an NGO-like institution preferable to using a profit-making organisation?
Full document available online

Gilson, L., Sen, P.D., Mohammed, S. and Mujinja, P. 1994, 'The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations - policy options,' Health Policy and Planning, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 14-24.
This article, from the journal Health Policy and Planning, throws light on current practices and future opportunities, in order to inform the process of policy development with respect to the incorporation of NGOs within health systems. Current practice is characterised by a key perceived strength of NGOs, that is, like health professionals, they are primarily motivated by humanitarian concern. However, some NGOs pursue profits and this can affect their response to circumstances.
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Civic organisations

Robinson, M. and White, G. 1998, 'Chapter 13: Civil Society and Social Provision: The Role of Civic Organisations' in Minogue, M., Polidano, C. and Hulme, D. 1998, Beyond the New Public Management: Changing Ideas and Practices in Governance.
This paper assesses the distinctive capacity and role of the civic sector in service provisioning in light of actual experience. It examines two types of civic organisations: formal, such as non-governmental, non-profit organisations (NGOs), churches, labour unions, farmers' organisations, philanthropic business and professional associations and informal, such as user groups of various sorts as well as parent-teacher committees.
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White, G. and Robinson, M. 1998 'Towards synergy in social provision: civic organisations and the state' in Beyond the New Public Management: Changing Ideas and Practice in Governance, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.
This paper sets out to explore the complex issues of inter-institutional coordination, developing a schematic framework for analysing the possible range of synergistic relationships that emerge in the determination, financing and production of social goods and services.
Full document available online

Key texts: Capacity to manage service delivery, contracting, partnerships

General

Mills, A. et al. 2000, The Challenges of Health Sector Reforms: What Must Governments Do? Palgrave, Basingstoke.
Health sector reform has been described as 'sustained, purposeful change to improve the efficiency, equity and effectiveness of the health sector'. There is no universal package of health care reforms, but the most widespread elements include restructuring public sector organisations, linking reward to performance, encouraging plurality and competition, funding through non-tax revenue, and increasing the role of the consumer in the health system.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Pinto, R.F. 1998, 'Innovations in the provision of public goods and services', Public Administration and Development, vol. 18, p.387-397.
Pinto (World Bank) draws on the varied experience of developed (UK) and transitional (Eastern European) countries to identify general guidelines and strategies for optimising service provision. The state, the market and the public all have roles to play, which are specific to a country's situation.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Girishankar, N. 1998, 'Unanswered questions in service provision for modernizing states,' Public Administration and Development, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 495-498.
It is recognised that the state can no longer afford to be the sole purveyor of public service provision. Therefore it is critical to understand what is now public about public service provision, with the inclusion of the private sector and civil society in implementation. Trade-off issues between efficiency and equity of service provision are just as relevant when civil society and the private sector are involved in public service provision. In this article, Navin Girishankar examines Pintos arguments for the importance of tripartite agreements between the state, private sector and civil society for service provision.
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Contracting

Bennett, S. and Mills, A. 1998, 'Government capacity to contract: health sector experience and lessons,' Public Administration and Development, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 307-326.
This paper uses a number of case studies to explore questions of contracting in the context of developing countries. Contracting-out is understood to follow eight steps: deciding to contract and prioritising which services to contract-out; identifying a contractor and managing the tendering process; designing the contract and drafting a legal contract; handing over the service and implementing the contract; monitoring the contractors; implementing a chain of sanctions for poor performance; and considering strategically the implications of the contract for the wider health system.
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Savas, E.S. 2000, 'Contracting for public services,' in Privatization and Public Private Partnerships, Chathan House Publishers, London & New York.
(Full summary and ability to access document available shortly)

Management

Girishankar, N. and De Silva, M. 1998, Strategic Management for Government Agencies. An Institutional Approach for Developing and Transition Economies, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
The main purpose of this paper is to improve the micro-economic aspects of World Bank (WB) supported public sector management (PSM) in developing and transition economies. To do this, a model for an efficient public sector agency or ministry (PSA) is created, and it is argued that organisations maximise their operational efficiency by modelling their internal structures around their core strategy.
Full document available online

Benchmarking

Dorsch, J.J. and Yasin, M. 1998, 'A framework for benchmarking in the public sector: literature review and directions for future research,' International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 91-115.
Benchmarking is a multi-faceted technique that identifies operational and strategic gaps in work processes and solutions for them. It has both an internal dimension whereby the organisation critically examines itself in search of best practices, and an external dimension whereby the organisation looks to other bodies and seeks to learn from them.
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