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Key texts

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development 2000, 'Visible Hands: Taking Responsibility for Social Development,' UNRISD Report for Geneva 2000, Geneva.
This UNRISD report assesses what has been achieved in the field of social development since it came to the fore with the 1995 World Summit. It examines various areas of social development and the progress that has been made to them in recent years. There is little indication that the fundamental goals and values are changing to allow progress in social development. Incentives continue to be oriented toward profit maximisation.
Full document available online

The World Bank Public Sector Group 2000, 'Reforming Government Institutions and Strengthening Governance. A World Bank Strategy,' World Bank Report no. 21439, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
This report reviews recent work on governance, reform of public sector institutions and capacity building, and addresses what the World Bank can do to help countries implement this agenda. The report focuses on reforms of core public sector institutions such as administrative and civil service reform, public expenditure management, tax administration, and public enterprise, legal and judicial reform, as well as on their interface with sectoral institutions.
Full document available online

Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A. and Zoido-Lobaton, P. 1999, 'Governance Matters,' World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2196, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
This World Bank study takes a cross-section of over than 150 countries. The research has created a database containing more than 300 governance indicators measuring various aspects of the political process, civil liberties and political rights. The analysis clearly indicates that there is a large payoff in terms of per capita income to improvements in governance. In other words, governance does matter.
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Burki, S.J. and Perry, G. 1998, 'Beyond the Washington Consensus. Institutions Matter,' World Bank Report no. 18428, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
This World Bank paper looks at the precise nature of institutional reforms and provides a framework for their design and implementation in the LAC region. As the region's political and economic environment becomes more conducive to institutional reform, there are many key obstacles to overcome: widespread corruption, a lacklustre education system, problems of information and a very weak legal institution.
Full document available online

Mills, A. et al. 2000, The Challenges of Health Sector Reforms: What Must Governments Do? Palgrave, Basingstoke.
Health sector reform has been described as 'sustained, purposeful change to improve the efficiency, equity and effectiveness of the health sector'. There is no universal package of health care reforms, but the most widespread elements include restructuring public sector organisations, linking reward to performance, encouraging plurality and competition, funding through non-tax revenue, and increasing the role of the consumer in the health system.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

Skweyiya, Z. 1997, Batho Pele People First, White Paper on Transforming Public Service Delivery, Department of Public Service and Administration, September 1997.
The delivery of public services to the South African people is an issue that needs to be addressed urgently, according to a White Paper from the South African Department of Public Service and Administration.Embracing the idea that citizens are customers, the paper argues, will ensure that citizens are listened to, respected and therefore delivered an acceptable level of service.
Full document available online

Nunberg, B. and Nellis, J. 1995, 'Civil Service Reform and the World Bank', World Bank Policy Paper, WDP-161, May 1995.
This paper surveys the World Bank's (WB's) efforts to assist with civil service reforms, building on a previous paper written in 1989 (Barbara Nunberg, 'Public Sector Pay and Employment Reform: A Review of World Bank Experience', WDP-68). Nunberg and Nellis find that WB programmes have generally failed to reduce civil service wage bills, even where they have managed to reduce the number of civil servants.
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