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Safety, Security and Accessible Justice

Safety and security

This selection of key texts, which forms part of the Governance Themes section on 'safety, security and accessible justice', explores promoting safety for all from violence and intimidation and security of personal property through crime prevention, community policing and police reform.

Page contents

Crime prevention

Community policing

Police reform

Key texts: Crime prevention

Jones, T. and Maguire, M. 1999, 'Crime, community safety and the policing of marginalised populations: a review of research.'
The aim of this paper is to identify what methods of policing and security provision best promote equity, safety and access to justice for all aspects of the population. The medium for this is a review of research regarding difficulties between police and certain communities - mainly ethnic minorities, but also, inter alia, women and homosexuals.
Full document available online

International Centre for the Prevention of Crime 2000, '100 Programs,' International Centre for the Prevention of Crime.
The International Centre for the Prevention of Crime (ICPC) has compiled a collection of 100 programmes around the world that exemplify knowledge of effective crime prevention. They demonstrate that to prevent crime one must not depend only on institutions and practitioners. Creating safe communities requires building partnerships and coalitions across communities and pooling resources.
Full document available online

Louw, A. and Shaw, M. 1997, 'Stolen opportunities: the impact of crime on South Africa's poor. Part 2: State Responses,' published in Monograph no. 14, Stolen Opportunities, Institute for Security Studies.
This article draws on the problems encountered with new policy initiatives from the Northern and Eastern Cape to demonstrate that crime prevention has to be geared to localities, to long term as well as short term solutions, and must take into account the differing needs of the poorer sections of society. While concentrating on South Africa, some of the pointers made could possibly be extrapolated to policing in other countries.
Full document available online

Key texts: Community policing

Hastings, R. and Saunders, R.P. 2001, 'Strategies for police accountability and community empowerment,' in P. Ribson and A Kjonstad (eds.) Poverty and the Law, Hart Publishing, Oxford, pp. 35-58.
This chapter, in Poverty and The Law, addresses the extent to which the accountability of public police to local governments and their communities has resulted in a meaningful shift of power to those groups traditionally most disadvantaged in local political processes. The focus of the paper is to assess the potential of police accountability mechanisms to assist members of the community, especially poor or disempowered, to mobilise for political action and to exercise greater control over their destiny.
Full document available through: BLDS document delivery service. Please access full summary and then click on the link for "BLDS Document Delivery Service".

US Department of Justice 2000, 'Excellence in problem oriented policing: the 2000 Herman Goldstein Award winners,' US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, draft prepared for the Police Executive Research Forum's 11th Annual International Problem-Oriented Policing Conference, San Diego California, December 2000.
With the widespread adoption of community policing across North America, law enforcement agencies are increasingly employing problem-solving strategies to address the concerns of the public. This report contains the winning projects of Police Executive Research Forum's (PERF) 2000 Herman Goldstein Award for Excellence in Problem-Oriented Policing (POP). It offers insights into the advantages of POP.
Full document available online

Key texts: Police reform

Clegg, I., Hunt, R. and Whetton, J. 2000, 'Policy Guidance on Support to Policing in Developing Countries', Centre for Development Studies, Swansea, report prepared for the Department for International Development.
This report from the Centre for Development Studies (CDS) aims to provide policy and technical guidance on assistance to building effective and democratic police services in developing countries. Since work on policing is rarely available in these countries, the report heavily draws on developed countries experiences, particularly the UK, the US and Northern Ireland, to provide valuable lessons for policing in developing countries.
Full document available online

Scharf, W. 1999 'Police transformation in South Africa: what NOT to do!' paper presented at the Centre for International and Comparative Human Rights Law, Queens University, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 5 May.
This paper shows how the transformation of the police service cannot be separated from the multiple restructuring process taking place throughout state institutions. There is also a need to be realistic about the limits of formal policing agencies during wider societal transformation.
Full document available online

Bayley, D.H. 2001, Democratizing the Police Abroad: What to Do and How to Do It, National Institute of Justice, US Department of Justice
This study is concerned with the accountability of police to the citizens in their country, and the degree to which the police focus on providing assistance to those citizens. It outlines a series of 87 lessons, based on a synthesis of more than 500 books, articles and documents by observers and practitioners (a bibliography of which accompanies the article).
Full document available online

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